Fuelling growing aviation demand

China Aviation Oil 27 February 2017 Initiation

China Aviation Oil (Singapore)

Fuelling growing aviation demand

Initiation of coverage

Aviation services

 

27 February 2017

Price

S$1.53

Market cap

S$1,316m

S$1.4064/US$

Net cash (US$m) at 31 December 2016

187

Shares in issue

860.2m

Free float

29%

Code

G92.SI

Primary exchange

SGX

Secondary exchange

N/A

Share price performance

%

1m

3m

12m

Abs

1.3

11.3

146.0

Rel (local)

(1.1)

1.6

106.7

52-week high/low

S$1.56

S$0.62

Business description

China Aviation Oil (Singapore) Corporation (CAO) is the largest physical jet fuel supplier and trader in Asia. It holds the sole import licence for bonded jet fuel into China, and has nascent businesses in the US and Europe. Of its five associates, the most important is SPIA, which supplies all jet fuel to Shanghai Pudong Airport.

Next events

Q1 results

19 April 2017

Analysts

Andy Chambers

+44 (0)20 3681 2525

Alexandra West

+44 (0)20 3077 5700

China Aviation Oil (Singapore) is a research client of Edison Investment Research Limited

As the sole licensed importer and supplier of jet fuel to China’s civil aviation industry, China Aviation Oil (Singapore) Corporation (CAO) is a direct play on the rapidly rising demand for air travel in China, augmented by both international and product expansion. While a healthy dividend income from a joint venture at Shanghai’s rapidly expanding Pudong Airport provides the bulk of earnings, the growing trading and supply of oil is supportive of our 14% EPS CAGR over the next two years. Our cash and peer-based fair value of US$1.45 (S$2.04) suggests potential for investors.

Year end

Revenue (US$m)

PBT* (US$m)

EPS* (c)

DPS (c)

P/E (x)

Yield (%)

12/15

8,987

63.0

7.3

2.1

14.9

1.9

12/16

11,703

90.3

10.4

3.2

10.5

2.9

12/17e

13,232

103.3

11.9

3.6

9.2

3.2

12/18e

14,918

116.9

13.5

4.0

8.1

3.3

Note: *PBT and EPS are normalised, excluding amortisation of acquired intangibles, exceptional items and share-based payments.

Chinese aviation growing rapidly

Chinese air travel grew at 15% in 2015, with international flights from People’s Republic of China (PRC) growing at 32%. China is expected to lead future global aviation traffic growth, with a committed airport build strategy and increasing business and leisure demand. As the sole supplier of imported jet fuel into PRC, CAO is exposed primarily to international traffic growth due to the restrictions on bonded fuel use. For CAO, stability is provided by the fixed price per barrel that it receives on this core supply. However, its associate Shanghai Pudong International Airport (SPIA) owns and operates the entire refuelling infrastructure at the airport. Despite only owning a 33% share, this is the largest contributor to CAO’s profitability and cash flow (through dividends), accounting for c 62% of operating profit in FY16 and most of cash flow. With the airport currently being expanded, the demand for jet fuel should continue to grow rapidly which, combined with the exclusive import licence to the PRC, provides a firm foundation for investors.

Strategy to expand capability and regionally

CAO is the largest physical jet fuel supplier and trader in Asia. CAO management is augmenting the growth afforded by the Chinese Aviation market by extending its reach geographically, and trading in a wider range of products. In FY10, 80% of revenues came from China, whereas in FY15 that figure had fallen to 52%. It now supplies jet fuel to more than 40 international airports in Asia, EMEA, North America and Europe. It continues to add assets to its supply infrastructure including storage. The ambition of Vision 2020 is to become a reputable global supplier of aviation fuels and synergistic transport fuels, including new clean alternative fuels.

Growth prospects justify a re-rating

CAO is trading on 9.2x our FY17e EPS, at a 32% discount to its closest peer World Fuel Services. While some disparity can be justified by global scale, the exposure to Chinese growth warrants a closure of CAO’s relative rating.

Investment summary
Company description: Largest jet fuel supplier in Asia-Pacific

CAO is the largest physical jet fuel trader in the Asia-Pacific region and the sole supplier of imported jet fuel to the civil aviation industry of China. The company relisted a decade ago and in that time it has internationalised its business; 52.5% of its revenues came from China in 2015, compared to 80% in 2010. It is the second largest provider of fuel to LA International Airport (LAX) after Chevron, and its growth strategy is to expand into other geographies. The group also trades other oil products and owns investments in oil-related businesses such as storage, pipelines and airport refuelling facilities. The Chinese government owns a 51% stake through China National Aviation Fuel Group Corporation (CNAF) and BP owns 20%, leaving 29% in free float.

Strategic direction is encompassed in long-term plans. The current Vision 2020 was launched in 2013 and provides the basis for CAO’s expansive strategy. The company is seeking to become one of the largest transportation fuel providers in the world, leveraging its strong position in Asian jet fuel supply to continue to expand both its product offering and territories served. It is already a global player, has expanded into other transportation fuels, has an integrated supply chain and developed very strong trading and risk management skills.

Valuation: Securing progressive growth is key

CAO‘s closest peer comparator is World Fuel Services, which currently trades at a 48% premium to CAO. In our opinion, this is unwarranted given its unique exposure to the fast growing Chinese aviation market. We value the core CAO operations using a DCF given the relative stability offered by being a physical jet fuel supplier as well as trader. Paper trading of oil contracts is limited to 10% of total trade volume, with 90% backed by physical contracts substantially de-risking the activity. The cost plus per barrel nature of the sole source import supply contract to China provides further stability as well as a gross margin premium return compared to normal trading activity. Using our calculated WACC of 10.4% implies a core CAO valuation of US$0.80/share (S$1.12). To value the substantial associates contribution appropriately, we use a simple P/E combined with two DCF valuations of the dividends. This provides a composite value of US$0.64 (S$0.90) per share. Our total DCF-based fair value for CAO is thus US$1.44 (S$2.02) per share. Including higher peer group multiples increases the fair value to US$1.45/share (S$2.04).

Financials: Balance sheet strength facilitates strategy

CAO is a well-capitalised and cash-generative company. The stability afforded by the associates’ large contributions also acts as a buffer against undue oil market volatility. With a positive net cash inflow in 2016, CAO currently has cash balances of c US$187m. This supports the expansionary strategy based on organic growth and M&A. As CAO grows its international standing, augmenting the rapid growth likely to be driven by Chinese air transport, returns should be enhanced further. Management’s commitment to a 30% payout ratio from 2015, as opposed to the fixed dividend previously, is increasing shareholder returns, with a 50% dividend rise in FY16. This is especially true if the company can secure resilient and progressive growth, as per its Vision 2020 strategy.

Sensitivities: Risk management for volatile markets

Given price fluctuations for oil products, the volatile nature of fuel supply markets and the inherent risks in trading activities, albeit well managed utilising sophisticated strategies, the consistent achievement of growth expectations in any territory is challenging. However, the ability of a shift in government policies to interfere and disrupt markets is very real.

CAO – the largest trader of jet fuel in Asia

China Aviation Oil (Singapore) Corporation (CAO) was incorporated on 26 May 1993 and was floated on the main board of the Singapore Stock Exchange in 2001. Its shares were suspended from trading in 2004 and relisted in 2006 after a significant restructuring. The company has two major shareholders: China National Aviation Fuel Group Corporation (CNAF) owns 51% of the company and the oil major BP owns just over 20% (see Exhibit 1). CNAF is state owned and is the largest provider of aviation transportation logistics services in China. CAO’s chairman is always a member of the CNAF board.

Exhibit 1: China Aviation Oil (Singapore) Corporation (CAO) group structure

Source: CAO Annual Report 2015, Edison Investment Research

CAO is the largest physical trader of jet fuel in Asia and has the sole import licence for bonded jet fuel into China. It has two divisions, as shown in Exhibit 2: Middle Distillates and Other Oil Products.

Exhibit 2: China Aviation Oil (Singapore) Corporation (CAO) divisional structure

Source: CAO Annual Report 2015, Edison Investment Research

Middle Distillates generated 78% of the group’s revenue in FY15. It supplies bonded jet fuel for international travel at all international airports across China, including the major gateways to the country: Beijing Capital International Airport, Shanghai Pudong, Hongqiao International Airport and Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport. It also supplies jet fuel to airlines at 43 international airports outside mainland China. Most notably, in FY14 CAO successfully penetrated the Los Angeles Airport (LAX) fuel consortium, and in FY15 exported jet fuel from China to the US for the first time. LAX was the seventh busiest airport in the world in 2015. The division’s volume was split 70:30 in FY15 between China and international supply. Notably, CAO doubled the volume of jet fuel it supplies to non-Chinese carriers. The Aviation Marketing arm of the Middle Distillates division is effectively an enabler. It is trying to grow CAO’s global presence by identifying new market opportunities and establishing co-operation agreements with strategic partners.

Other Oil Products is the much smaller of the two divisions, generating 22% of group revenue in FY15. It was established in 2008 with petrochemicals to diversify CAO’s product offering. The petrochemical offering has been withdrawn and its current offering is gas oil, fuel oil and aviation gas (avgas). Historically, it has been a small percentage of traded volumes, but as of Q316 Other Oil Products was 44% of the group’s total volume supplied and traded. However, market conditions have negatively affected the profitability of this business since FY14. Aviation gas (avgas) is used in small piston engine-powered aircraft. Worldwide avgas volumes are low, because although avgas-fuelled aircraft outnumber jet-fuelled aircraft, they are much smaller and make shorter flights. However, in 2015 CAO increased its volume of avgas supplied, due to expanding its business into India, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia. Fuel oil is used in the maritime market, while gas oil (essentially diesel) is used in the commercial and agricultural sector for equipment such as cranes, bulldozers, tractors and combine harvesters as well as automotive markets, especially in Indonesia.

CAO has five associate companies, as shown in Exhibit 3. In FY16 the associates represented 68% of group operating profit, of which Shanghai Pudong International Airport Aviation Fuel Supply Company (SPIA) contributed 91%. SPIA is the fastest growing major international airport in the world and passenger capacity is set to increase when the fifth runway is completed at the end of 2017, and a new passenger hub is added by 2019.

Exhibit 3: CAO associate companies

Source: CAO Annual Report 2015, Edison Investment Research

CAO’s transformation – Vision 2020

Over the past decade, CAO has undergone an impressive transformation. In 2004 it reported estimated losses of c US$550m caused by the then CEO, Chen Jiulin, speculatively trading oil derivatives. After a total corporate restructuring, which saw BP become a strategic investor, CAO is now established as the largest physical supplier of jet fuel in Asia, with an enviably exclusive position in China. Vision 2020 (launched in 2013) elucidates the current management’s strategy to globalise CAO while continuing to exploit forecast aviation growth in Asia, in order to be “a constantly innovating global top-tier integrated transportation fuels provider”.

Exhibit 4: CAO Vision 2020 strategy

Source: Company presentations, Edison Investment Research

How CAO does business

CAO benefits from cost-plus pricing for the bonded jet fuel it supplies to China. This means it has the opportunity to improve its margin through its trading strategy. CAO trades higher volumes when the market is in contango (spot price is lower than the forward price). During periods of backwardation (spot price is higher than the forward price) orders are procured as close to when they are needed as possible. Crucially, 90% of volumes traded must be backed by physical orders from customers, so CAO is a supplier, not so much a trader of jet fuel. The price for jet fuel supplied outside China is fixed with the customer one month before delivery so whilst the oil price impacts revenues, the margin is well protected (see Exhibit 5).

The competitive dynamic in the jet fuel industry varies across the globe and CAO is in an ideal position to exploit the current landscape. China is a closed market where CAO has the sole import licence. This situation does not look likely to change in the near future; we discuss this further in the sensitivities section on page 9. Singapore is a partially closed market where a company has to be a member of the jet fuel consortium CAHFI. Europe is a partially open market because it does not produce enough jet fuel to fulfil its own demand and the US is an entirely open market. CAO has a myriad of competitors across the globe (although none in China), which range from big oil majors such as Chevron to small specialist oil traders.

Exhibit 5: Singapore jet fuel price (quarterly, US$ per tonne CIF*)

Source: Bloomberg. Note: CIF = cost insurance and freight.

The management team is experienced in the Chinese Oil market and has benefited from the involvement of BP since 2006. Meng Fanqiu has been CEO for the past 10 years and previously worked for CNAF and CAAC. He has been on board throughout CAO’s restructuring and has been the driving force behind internationalising the business. Jean Teo, the chief operating officer, previously worked for BP Singapore, during which time she was seconded to the position of head of trading at CAO. She is now a full CAO employee and is responsible for developing and executing trading strategies.

A proxy for international aviation growth from China

Aerospace is widely acknowledged to be an industry in a period of structural growth. International travel from China is increasing four times faster than the global average, so CAO is exposed to a sweet spot in the market. The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) estimates that revenue passenger kilometres (RPKs, the number of revenue-paying passengers x distance flown) grew at an average of 6.1% over the past five years and at 7.1% in 2015, as shown in Exhibit 6. Asia-Pacific is forecast to lead world passenger traffic growth over the next 10 years, at an average rate of 6.1%, compared to global growth of 5.0%. By 2035, half of the top 20 traffic flows will involve Asia-Pacific.

Exhibit 6: ICAO global RPKs 2005-15

Source: ICAO, Edison Investment Research

Chinese air travel grew 15% in 2015. The domestic Chinese market is triple the size of the international Chinese market, but international travel is growing much faster. It grew at an average of 16% in 2014, 25% in 2015 and 32% in 2016 (Exhibit 7). CAO has exposure to Chinese domestic travel through its investment in SPIA, which refuels all aircraft, but its exclusive refuelling rights are for the fast-growing Chinese international market. We estimate RPK growth of 10% in 2017 and 2018, implying a traffic multiplier of 1.54x GDP growth of 6.5% (last five years’ average 1.83x). This drives our revenue forecasts for CAO. CAO is therefore exposed to an end-market with very strong prospects and can be seen as a proxy for growth in international travel to and from China.

Exhibit 7: Chinese domestic and international RPKs 2010-15

Source: Bloomberg, Edison Investment Research

The middle classes in Asia are expected to double to over 2.5 billion people over the next 20 years. Chinese middle class households already exceed the number in the US and will be more than double by 2024, according to Oxford Economics.

While an individual’s propensity to travel is driven at the most fundamental level by wealth, it is clear that the Chinese government is the force propelling growth in China’s aviation industry. The 12th Five-Year Plan published in 2010 listed aviation as “one of seven major strategic industries”. Public investment in aerospace over those years totalled US$230bn, a 50% increase over the comparable period in the previous five-year plan, and 10 times as much as the US Federal Aviation Administration’s budget for capital improvements and airport construction during the same period.

China’s “One Belt, One Road” initiative introduced in the 13th Five-Year plan is intended to improve links between China, East Asia and Europe by building infrastructure and developing trade ties. Countries on the ‘belt and road’ have become the focus of international route expansion by Chinese airlines, which are increasingly competing with international airlines. This is an unusually outward-looking initiative by the Chinese government and is supportive of CAO’s globalisation strategy. The ASEAN–China Air Transport Agreement of 2010 has been a significant driver in increasing the number of routes in the region. In 2009 there were 78 airport pairs, but in 2014 the figure had doubled to 156. Airbus’s 2016 Global Market Forecast states that 13,239 new aircraft will be delivered to Asia over the next 20 years. 32% of these will replace the existing fleet, but 68% will create new capacity.

Fuel efficiencies may temper CAO’s growth slightly

We believe there are two issues that mean CAO’s volumes will grow slightly slower than RPKs:

Improvements in Chinese air traffic control systems. Chinese aircraft have historically burnt twice as much fuel per passenger mile as their counterparts in Europe because of inefficiencies in Chinese air traffic control systems. The military controls nearly all of the airspace between Chinese destinations and aircraft have to line up for chances to pass through the narrow military-authorised corridors. Aircraft in Chinese airspace have to fly indirect routes, equivalent to going all around a city on a ring road. Also, military restrictions often keep jets at 10,000-15,000ft for extended periods, rather than 30,000ft cruising, as is the norm in civil aerospace. The lower an aircraft flies the more fuel it burns because an aircraft generates more drag if it flies below 20,000ft. This problem is gradually being solved by better GPS systems and the military relinquishing some control of the airspace.

More fuel-efficient aircraft. New aircraft are 70% more fuel efficient than 40 years ago, and 20% better than 10 years ago. The aircraft and engine manufacturers continually focus on reducing fuel burn (and hence CO2 emissions) because it saves the airlines money and is better for the environment. Fuel is an airline’s single biggest expense. Airbus estimates that at $50/barrel it is 17% of costs for an average airline, rising to 30% at $100/barrel. It is a much higher proportion for low-cost carriers. Exhibit 8 shows that fuel consumption per passenger has fallen 34% in the past 15 years and we expect this trend to continue, albeit at a slower rate.

Exhibit 8: Fuel consumption (average kilograms per passenger per trip) 2000-15

Source: ICAO, IATA, Airbus

Other growth opportunities

CAO’s development strategy, known as Vision 2020 (see Exhibit 5 on page 6), makes it clear that CAO sees itself developing hand in hand with the Chinese government’s “One Belt, One Road” policy. It wants to benefit from development of not only airports, but also roads, railways and ports by increasing its supply locations and volumes, to become a “global top tier integrated fuel supplier”. CAO has a strong net cash position and we therefore expect the group to pursue acquiring assets, which are synergistic to its jet fuel supply and trading business.

We expect the Aviation Marketing business to expand into more airports outside mainland China and Other Oil Products to continue to pursue its diversification strategy, particularly in building structural advantages for its fuel oil business.

The current management team has successfully diversified CAO’s geographic customer base. In FY10, 80% of revenues came from China compared to 52.5% in FY15 (see Exhibit 9). However, only 12.3% of revenues came from outside Asia in FY15 (6% from the US in FY15, 2.8% from Europe and 3.5% from Australia), so there should be the potential to grow international revenues.

Exhibit 9: CAO revenue development 2010-15 by geography

Source: CAO 2016 AGM presentation

Longer term, we see an opportunity for CAO in alternative sources of jet fuel. China is the focus for efforts by Boeing (in partnership with the Chinese government) to extract fuel from more efficient biological sources. It has been successfully proved that algae produce hydrocarbons, which can be converted to a form of oil. However, the trick is growing algae and harvesting their oil at a large enough scale and a low enough cost to be a plausible substitute for regular petroleum. Boeing has calculated that you would need algae facilities the size of Belgium and an oil price of $90/barrel to make algae-based fuel economical once production techniques are improved. As a part state-owned company, CAO is likely to be at the forefront of any green fuel developments.

Management

CAO is a very different company from 2004, when the CEO’s poor trading strategy nearly bankrupted the business. The current CEO, Mr Meng Fanqiu has been in the post for almost 10 years and has a background in the Chinese civil aviation industry. He has worked extremely closely with executives from BP, who came on board in 2005. BP was one of CAO’s biggest creditors in 2004, was owed $32m for fuel supplies and had a vested interest in righting the company. BP has two members on the nine-person CAO board, and for the past decade CAO’s head of trading and head of risk management have both been secondees from BP. CAO’s sophisticated risk management policy has been devised by BP. It is detailed in the Annual Report and in this risk management presentation.

A new chairman, Dr Xi Zhengping was appointed in February 2017, replacing Mr Lin Wanli, who had been in place for two years as part of standard rotation at Chinese state owned enterprises (SOs). CAO’s non-executive chairman is always a director from its parent company, CNAF. The Annual General Meeting on 18 April will be Dr Zhengping’s first opportunity to address the investment community.

Sensitivities

Investors should be aware of several issues that could influence the performance of the company and the share price. Most are high level, but some relate to the nature of the business, although management has adopted a rigorous risk management regime since the derivatives speculation scandal that damaged the company over a decade ago.

Oil price and other macro issues: while the trading operations tend to be inherently risky, a movement in oil prices is generally a managed event through trading policy, risk control and hedging. Foreign exchange exposure exists as CAO is based in Singapore, accounts in US$ and has a large associate income from China. Principal exposure is to the US$ versus the Chinese renminbi.

Technical issues: the 20% stake owned by BP appears to be a strategic investment, but there are a host of examples where apparently committed involvement has been quickly undone. We also note that BP is currently divesting a number of its assets. However, the company has been working with CAO for 10 years, allowing it to develop its own risk management policies, which would endure even if BP were no longer a shareholder. Although a technical overhang, if BP were to sell its stake it could improve liquidity. In addition, the company has a controlling state-owned shareholder, which means the minority free float stakeholders have little control on strategic or financial decisions made by the company. In this regard, however, we would note the adoption of a progressive earnings-related payout ratio in 2015 as a sign of consideration for minority shareholders.

Political and regulatory risks: CAO’s main business operates in a centrally planned economy, where changes to policy and regulation can be far reaching and imposed quite rapidly. The state clearly regards aviation as a key element of its economic growth plan. China is exploring changes to its jet fuel market to a more demand-driven competitive pricing regime by 2020. CAO currently supplies its imported jet fuel on a cost-plus, fixed-price barrel basis, which could be altered if such a regime were introduced. However, CNAF, CAO’s parent company, which grants CAO its jet fuel import licence, owns the refuelling assets and infrastructure at all of China’s airports, providing a very high barrier to entry for any new competitors. In addition, the growth of the transportation fuel market in China could lead to demand for more import licences to be awarded. The new Trump administration’s policies may impact on global trade flows and industrial output, which could affect demand for oil products more generally.

Company-specific risks: a large part of the company’s activity is oil trading, which carries significant risk as the company seeks to fulfil its contracted physical supply obligations. Risk factors can be categorised as market, credit, operational and enterprise. Risk can be to the upside as well as to the downside, although hedging operations are designed to mitigate the volatility and scale. Since 2006, with the help of BP, a robust risk management structure has been formulated, constructed and implemented, with a multi-tiered boardroom to operational level system of checks, balances and accountability.

Valuation

While CAO is quoted in Singapore, exposure to the Chinese air transport market presents both an opportunity and a risk for investors. The opportunity is the rapid growth of air travel, but the potential for disruption to performance due to policy changes in China must be considered. Today the opportunity would appear to far outweigh the risk, despite the relatively restricted free float.

CAO has few direct peers as competition often comes from much larger international oil companies, banks and more general commodity traders. The closest comparison is with World Fuel Services, which currently trades at a near 58% premium to CAO. In our opinion, this is unwarranted given the latter’s unique exposure to the fast growing Chinese aviation market. However, the core CAO operations can be valued on a DCF basis given the relative stability provided by being a physical jet fuel supplier as well as a trader. The paper trading of oil contracts is limited to 10% of total trade volume, with 90% backed by physical contracts substantially de-risking the activity. In addition, the cost plus per barrel nature of the sole source import supply contract to China provides further stability as well as a gross margin premium return compared to normal trading activity. Using our calculated WACC of 10.4% implies a core CAO valuation (including US$187m FY16 year-end net cash) of US$0.80 (S$1.12), to which must be added a value for the associates and joint ventures.

With 68% of operating profit and >100% of operating cash flow in FY16 generated by the five associate and joint venture entities these must be valued appropriately. Applying net income at the group FY17 P/E multiple of 9.2x is conservative in our view given peer multiples and growth rates. Thus we consider two cash-based valuations of the dividend stream to provide a composite value, which currently stands at US$0.64 (S$0.90) per share. Our total DCF-based estimate of fair value for CAO overall is thus currently US$1.44 (S$2.02) per share, a modest premium to the current share price.

The average of our various peer and cash based valuations methodologies is US$1.45 (S$2.04) per share, suggesting continued potential for the shares despite the performance in 2016.

Peer group comparison

The direct peer group for CAO is quite limited as comparators tend to be parts of large international oil companies or banks, or larger more general commodity trading houses, both quoted or unquoted. World Fuel Services in the US is probably the closest match and currently trades on a 13.6x FY17e P/E multiple. CAO currently trades on 9.2x Edison FY17e EPS (9.7x consensus). While some of the disparity to peers might be justified by global scale, we would suggest the exposure to Chinese growth warrants a closure of the relative rating.

We have also compared CAO to an air transport peer group including Chinese airports, as well as Asian airlines and comparable oil supply companies. Overall these trade on an FY17e P/E of 14.1x, which again suggests some potential for CAO investors

Capped DCF valuation

As we expect CAO’s wholly owned trading and supply activity to continue to grow for many years to come, we use our capped DCF methodology. This values cash flows in the longer term as a perpetuity, rather than allowing for any growth in the terminal value. NPV is calculated at a WACC of 10.4%, which is a modest premium to a weighted Chinese and Singapore country WACC, to reflect the reliance on the Chinese aviation market, especially for valuing the associate.

The valuation is dominated by the input for the associates that provide a large proportion of annual cash flow. With the dividend likely to grow over time, we see three valuation methods as appropriate.

a)

Applying a modest FY17e P/E multiple of 9.2x would imply a value of US$554m (S$785m) for CAO’s share of the associates. A one point move in the P/E applied to the associates would affect the overall CAO group value by US$0.07(S$0.10) per share.

b)

Using the FY16 dividend receipts and valuing them as a perpetuity at WACC implies a value of US$484m (S$681m).

c)

Using a 5% growth annuity calculation for six years with a zero growth perpetuity thereafter would imply a value of US$606m (S$852m).

Adding these to the core enterprise DCF value and the current net cash balances implies a valuation per CAO share of (a) US$1.44 (S$2.03), (b) US$1.36 (S$1.91) and (c) US$1.50 (S$2.11). Taking an average of these gives a value of US$1.44 (S$2.01) per share, which also suggests an opportunity for investors. The sensitivity of the calculation to differing WACC and terminal growth assumptions is reflected in Exhibit 10 below.

Exhibit 10: CAO average DCF value sensitivity to changes in WACC and terminal growth

WACC

8%

9%

10%

11%

12%

13%

14%

15%

Terminal growth rate

0%

1.78

1.62

1.48

1.38

1.29

1.21

1.15

1.09

1%

1.87

1.68

1.54

1.42

1.32

1.24

1.17

1.11

2%

2.00

1.77

1.60

1.47

1.36

1.27

1.20

1.13

3%

2.17

1.89

1.69

1.53

1.41

1.31

1.23

1.16

Source: Edison Investment Research estimates: Note: Core DCF is calculated at a WACC of 10.4%.

Exhibit 11: Valuation methodology summary

Valuation basis (US$m)

EV

Cash

JVs

Market cap

Value per share US$

Value per share S$

Current valuation FY17 P/E 9.2x

111

187

637

936

1.09

1.53

FY17 P/E of World Fuel Service (13.6x)

196

187

818

1,201

1.40

1.96

FY17 P/E of peer group (14.1x)

433

187

702

1,322

1.54

2.16

DCF (a)

499

187

554

1,240

1.44

2.03

DCF (b)

499

187

484

1,171

1.36

1.91

DCF (c)

499

187

606

1,293

1.50

2.11

Average

1.45

2.04

Source: Bloomberg data, Edison Investment Research estimates. Note: Priced at 23 February 2017.

Financials

Revenues are generated principally by the supply and trading activities of CAO. Split between two divisions, Middle Distillates (primarily jet fuel) and Other Oil Products, the revenue performance has fluctuated dramatically with the oil product prices in recent years. Oil volumes have continued to grow significantly since 2010, with growth in jet fuel supply both to China and international markets contributing to increased volumes. The growth of activity in other oil products has also grown strongly from a standing start in 2008, with a very strong rise in FY16 as the company extended its supply of crude oil to China and of fuel oil to the Middle East

Exhibit 12: CAO volumes vs jet fuel price

Exhibit 13: CAO revenues and gross profit margin

Source: Company reports, Edison Investment Research

Source Company reports, Edison Investment Research

Exhibit 12: CAO volumes vs jet fuel price

Source: Company reports, Edison Investment Research

Exhibit 13: CAO revenues and gross profit margin

Source Company reports, Edison Investment Research

Revenues suffered from the sharp fall in fuel prices seen in 2015, which affected both jet fuel and other oil products. The pace of reduction slowed on average in 2016 and spot prices have stabilised into 2017. Gross margin for the Middle Distillates area has remained relatively robust through this decade, with the cost plus a fixed contribution per barrel for oil supplied into China acting as both an enhancement and a stabilising influence. The activity’s gross margin has ranged from 0.24% in 2014 to 0.58% in 2010. The gross margin in FY16 was 0.54% (FY15 0.53%). Low gross margins are typical of this kind of trading activity. The Other Oil Products area has been more variable, but since suspension of petrochemical operations in 2015 a move into the black appears sustainable, given the increased scale of the activity. It produced a modest positive margin of 0.06% in FY16, having generated losses in the previous two years.

Exhibit 14: Contribution from associates and JVs (CAO share)

Year to December (US$m)

2014

2015

2016e

2017e

2018e

SPIA

Revenue

1166.55

775.49

1023.65

1126.02

1238.62

Net Profit

41.87

38.88

60.64

65.31

71.84

Net Margin

3.6%

5.0%

5.9%

5.8%

5.8%

Dividend

32.41

34.53

48.51

52.25

57.47

Payout ratio

77.4%

88.8%

80.0%

80.0%

80.0%

TSN-PEKCL

Revenue

8.75

9.46

11.35

11.35

11.35

Net Profit

1.63

2.24

2.18

2.84

2.84

Net Margin

18.6%

23.7%

19.2%

25.0%

25.0%

Dividend

2.74

2.70

2.0

2.6

2.6

Payout ratio

168.2%

120.9%

90.0%

90.0%

90.0%

Others

Net Profit

-0.31

1.18

3.55

5.5

6.12

Dividend

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Payout ratio

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

Source: CAO reports, Edison Investment Research estimates

The development of the two main associates is a reflection of the growth experienced by airports in China which they serve. This is reflected in the growth in passenger numbers travelling through the airport, which provide a proxy for fuel demand, although the fall in global jet fuel prices clearly influences revenue. Whilst SPIA transacts in US dollars, it pays its dividend to CAO in renminbi in the second half of the following year and therefore the devaluation of the renminbi affects translation of performance into US dollars, CAO’s accounting currency.

Exhibit 15: Chinese airport passenger numbers 2001-2016 (11 months)

Source: CAAC

As Exhibit 15 shows, Shanghai Pudong International has been one of the fastest growing airports in the world and this is set to continue with the addition of a fifth runway due to become operational this year. CAO’s exposure through its 33% stake in SPIA looks set to grow rapidly. TSN PEKCL, which operates the pipeline servicing Beijing Capital and Tianjin Binhai also appears to be strongly underpinned by the development of air traffic at these hubs.

Cash flow generation for the group remains strong with a robust operational performance for the past decade, excepting 2013. Very low capital expenditure requirements and the strong stream of associates’ dividends have seen net cash develop strongly through the last decade. The company currently carries $100m of short-term debt. Gross cash at the end of FY16 was US$287m.

Exhibit 16: CAO group free cash generation and net cash balances (US$m)

Source: Company reports, Edison Investment Research

While we have adopted a cautious stance towards operational cash development, this may prove to be conservative given the historic performance. Nevertheless, the strength of the balance sheet supports both the expansionary ambition of the group, together with the now established progressive dividend policy for shareholders.

Exhibit 17: Financial summary

US$m

2014

2015

2016

2017e

2018e

Year end 31 December

IFRS

IFRS

IFRS

IFRS

IFRS

PROFIT & LOSS

Revenue

 

17,061

8,987

11,703

13,232

14,918

Cost of Sales

(17,034)

(8,952)

(11,659)

(13,184)

(14,864)

Gross Profit

27.4

35.4

44.0

48.2

53.7

EBITDA

 

14.7

25.9

30.2

35.2

41.4

Operating Profit (before amort. and except.)

 

13.9

25.0

29.5

34.3

40.5

Intangible Amortisation

(0.7)

(0.7)

(0.5)

(0.1)

(0.1)

Net income from associates

38.3

38.6

60.5

69.6

76.3

Exceptionals

0.8

(0.8)

(0.3)

0.0

0.0

Other

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Operating Profit

52.3

62.2

89.2

103.8

116.7

Net Interest

(2.8)

(0.7)

0.3

(0.6)

0.1

Profit Before Tax (norm)

 

49.4

63.0

90.3

103.3

116.9

Profit Before Tax (FRS 3)

 

49.6

61.5

89.5

103.1

116.8

Tax

(0.5)

(0.4)

(0.6)

(1.0)

(1.2)

Profit After Tax (norm)

49.0

62.6

89.7

102.2

115.8

Profit After Tax (FRS 3)

49.1

61.1

88.8

102.1

115.6

Average Number of Shares Outstanding (m)

860.2

860.2

860.2

860.2

860.2

EPS - normalised (c)

 

5.7

7.3

10.4

11.9

13.5

EPS - normalised and fully diluted (c)

 

5.7

7.3

10.4

11.9

13.5

EPS - (IFRS) (c)

 

5.7

7.1

10.3

11.9

13.4

Dividend per share (c)

1.5

2.1

3.2

3.6

4.0

Gross Margin (%)

0.2

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

EBITDA Margin (%)

0.1

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

Operating Margin (before GW and except.) (%)

0.1

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

BALANCE SHEET

Fixed Assets

 

279.3

273.7

288.2

306.9

328.1

Intangible Assets

2.4

1.8

1.6

1.7

1.7

Tangible Assets

6.8

6.2

5.7

5.1

4.7

Investments

270.1

265.6

281.0

300.1

321.7

Current Assets

 

1,099.4

571.9

1,056.2

916.2

1,030.4

Stocks

38.1

56.8

170.7

154.2

168.6

Debtors

823.1

296.0

316.0

330.8

361.8

Cash

94.3

170.5

287.3

225.1

268.7

Other

143.9

48.5

282.2

206.1

231.4

Current Liabilities

 

(819.0)

(246.7)

(688.4)

(495.6)

(549.9)

Creditors

(819.0)

(246.7)

(588.4)

(495.6)

(549.9)

Short term borrowings

0.0

0.0

(100.0)

0.0

0.0

Long Term Liabilities

 

(6.2)

(6.2)

(6.3)

(6.3)

(6.3)

Long term borrowings

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Other long term liabilities

(6.2)

(6.2)

(6.3)

(6.3)

(6.3)

Net Assets

 

553.5

592.6

649.7

721.2

802.2

CASH FLOW

Operating Cash Flow

 

85.9

92.7

37.8

65.9

76.6

Net Interest

(4.5)

(2.8)

(0.7)

0.3

(0.6)

Tax

(0.4)

(0.5)

(0.4)

(1.0)

(1.2)

Capex

(0.5)

(0.4)

(0.4)

(0.6)

(0.6)

Acquisitions/disposals

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Financing

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Dividends

(13.7)

(12.8)

(19.3)

(26.7)

(30.7)

Other

(0.4)

(0.1)

(0.4)

0.0

0.0

Net Cash Flow

66.6

76.2

16.8

37.8

43.5

Opening net debt/(cash)

 

(27.7)

(94.3)

(170.5)

(187.3)

(225.1)

HP finance leases initiated

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Other

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

0.0

(0.0)

Closing net debt/(cash)

 

(94.3)

(170.5)

(187.3)

(225.1)

(268.7)

Source: Company accounts, Edison Investment Research

Contact details

Revenue by geography

8 Temasek Boulevard #31-02 Suntec Tower Three Singapore 03898 +65 6334 8979 www.caosco.com

Contact details

8 Temasek Boulevard #31-02 Suntec Tower Three Singapore 03898 +65 6334 8979 www.caosco.com

Revenue by geography

Management team

Non-Executive Chairman: Dr Xi Zhengping

CEO: Meng Fanqiu

Currently a director and general manager of China National Aviation Fuel Group (CNAF), CAO’s parent company. Prior to this, he was deputy general manager of China Non-ferrous Metal Mining (Group) Co. Dr Xi holds a Doctor of Engineering from Northeastern University of Technology with a major in physical chemistry of metallurgy and is a qualified senior engineer at the professor level. He was head of Shaanxi Provincial Department of Science and Technology from December 2010 to February 2013 and mayor of Weinan City, Shaanxi Province, from February 2013 to February 2015.

Prior to his current appointment, Mr Meng was the divisional director of Planning and Development at CNAF. He led the steering committee for the restructuring of China Aviation Oil Supply Corporation, which resulted in the formation of China National Aviation Fuel Corporation. Mr Meng was an official of the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) from 1991 to 2003 where he was directly involved in the drafting and enacting of the PRC Civil Aviation Law, the first law on civil aviation in the PRC. Mr Meng graduated from China University of Political Science and Law (he majored in International Economic Law) and holds a Master of Business Law from Renmin University of China. He is also a qualified legal attorney and a qualified corporate legal advisor in the PRC.

CFO: Wang Chunyan

Chief Operating Officer: Jean Teo

Prior to joining CAO, Mr Wang was deputy head of the Financial Assets division at Shengli Petroleum Administrative Bureau, a subsidiary of SINOPEC. He began his career with Hekou Oil Production Plant, a subsidiary of Shengli Petroleum Administrative Bureau in 1993. He held several senior positions within the Financial Assets division of Shengli before his appointment as deputy head in May 2006. Mr Wang is a qualified senior international finance manager and senior accountant. He holds a Bachelor’s Degree in economics, majoring in accountancy from Changchun Taxation College, China.

Mrs Teo has more than 10 years of experience in the oil trading industry, mainly with BP Singapore. She held various roles in BP, including lead trader of light distillates, and was seconded to the position of head of trading of CAO from January 2008 to August 2010. Prior to joining CAO, she was a senior trader of distillates products at Cargill International Pte Ltd. Jean Teo holds a master of business administration (finance) from Manchester Business School, United Kingdom, and a bachelor of engineering, chemical (honours) from the National University of Singapore.

Management team

Non-Executive Chairman: Dr Xi Zhengping

Currently a director and general manager of China National Aviation Fuel Group (CNAF), CAO’s parent company. Prior to this, he was deputy general manager of China Non-ferrous Metal Mining (Group) Co. Dr Xi holds a Doctor of Engineering from Northeastern University of Technology with a major in physical chemistry of metallurgy and is a qualified senior engineer at the professor level. He was head of Shaanxi Provincial Department of Science and Technology from December 2010 to February 2013 and mayor of Weinan City, Shaanxi Province, from February 2013 to February 2015.

CEO: Meng Fanqiu

Prior to his current appointment, Mr Meng was the divisional director of Planning and Development at CNAF. He led the steering committee for the restructuring of China Aviation Oil Supply Corporation, which resulted in the formation of China National Aviation Fuel Corporation. Mr Meng was an official of the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) from 1991 to 2003 where he was directly involved in the drafting and enacting of the PRC Civil Aviation Law, the first law on civil aviation in the PRC. Mr Meng graduated from China University of Political Science and Law (he majored in International Economic Law) and holds a Master of Business Law from Renmin University of China. He is also a qualified legal attorney and a qualified corporate legal advisor in the PRC.

CFO: Wang Chunyan

Prior to joining CAO, Mr Wang was deputy head of the Financial Assets division at Shengli Petroleum Administrative Bureau, a subsidiary of SINOPEC. He began his career with Hekou Oil Production Plant, a subsidiary of Shengli Petroleum Administrative Bureau in 1993. He held several senior positions within the Financial Assets division of Shengli before his appointment as deputy head in May 2006. Mr Wang is a qualified senior international finance manager and senior accountant. He holds a Bachelor’s Degree in economics, majoring in accountancy from Changchun Taxation College, China.

Chief Operating Officer: Jean Teo

Mrs Teo has more than 10 years of experience in the oil trading industry, mainly with BP Singapore. She held various roles in BP, including lead trader of light distillates, and was seconded to the position of head of trading of CAO from January 2008 to August 2010. Prior to joining CAO, she was a senior trader of distillates products at Cargill International Pte Ltd. Jean Teo holds a master of business administration (finance) from Manchester Business School, United Kingdom, and a bachelor of engineering, chemical (honours) from the National University of Singapore.

Principal shareholders

(%)

China National Aviation Fuel Group Corporation (CNAF)

51.3%

BP Investments Asia

20.2%

Public

28.5%

Companies named in this report

World Fuel Services (INT), BP (BP), Airbus (AIR)

Edison is an investment research and advisory company, with offices in North America, Europe, the Middle East and AsiaPac. The heart of Edison is our world renowned equity research platform and deep multi-sector expertise. At Edison Investment Research, our research is widely read by international investors, advisors and stakeholders. Edison Advisors leverages our core research platform to provide differentiated services including investor relations and strategic consulting. Edison is authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority. Edison Investment Research (NZ) Limited (Edison NZ) is the New Zealand subsidiary of Edison. Edison NZ is registered on the New Zealand Financial Service Providers Register (FSP number 247505) and is registered to provide wholesale and/or generic financial adviser services only. Edison Investment Research Inc (Edison US) is the US subsidiary of Edison and is regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Edison Investment Research Limited (Edison Aus) [46085869] is the Australian subsidiary of Edison and is not regulated by the Australian Securities and Investment Commission. Edison Germany is a branch entity of Edison Investment Research Limited [4794244]. www.edisongroup.com

DISCLAIMER Copyright 2017 Edison Investment Research Limited. All rights reserved. This report has been commissioned by China Aviation Oil (Singapore) and prepared and issued by Edison for publication globally. All information used in the publication of this report has been compiled from publicly available sources that are believed to be reliable, however we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this report. Opinions contained in this report represent those of the research department of Edison at the time of publication. The securities described in the Investment Research may not be eligible for sale in all jurisdictions or to certain categories of investors. This research is issued in Australia by Edison Aus and any access to it, is intended only for "wholesale clients" within the meaning of the Australian Corporations Act. The Investment Research is distributed in the United States by Edison US to major US institutional investors only. 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The research in this document is intended for New Zealand resident professional financial advisers or brokers (for use in their roles as financial advisers or brokers) and habitual investors who are “wholesale clients” for the purpose of the Financial Advisers Act 2008 (FAA) (as described in sections 5(c) (1)(a), (b) and (c) of the FAA). This is not a solicitation or inducement to buy, sell, subscribe, or underwrite any securities mentioned or in the topic of this document. This document is provided for information purposes only and should not be construed as an offer or solicitation for investment in any securities mentioned or in the topic of this document. A marketing communication under FCA Rules, this document has not been prepared in accordance with the legal requirements designed to promote the independence of investment research and is not subject to any prohibition on dealing ahead of the dissemination of investment research. 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Forward-looking information or statements in this report contain information that is based on assumptions, forecasts of future results, estimates of amounts not yet determinable, and therefore involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of their subject matter to be materially different from current expectations. For the purpose of the FAA, the content of this report is of a general nature, is intended as a source of general information only and is not intended to constitute a recommendation or opinion in relation to acquiring or disposing (including refraining from acquiring or disposing) of securities. The distribution of this document is not a “personalised service” and, to the extent that it contains any financial advice, is intended only as a “class service” provided by Edison within the meaning of the FAA (ie without taking into account the particular financial situation or goals of any person). 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Frankfurt +49 (0)69 78 8076 960

Schumannstrasse 34b

60325 Frankfurt

Germany

London +44 (0)20 3077 5700

280 High Holborn

London, WC1V 7EE

United Kingdom

New York +1 646 653 7026

245 Park Avenue, 39th Floor

10167, New York

US

Sydney +61 (0)2 8249 8342

Level 12, Office 1205, 95 Pitt Street

Sydney, NSW 2000

Australia

Frankfurt +49 (0)69 78 8076 960

Schumannstrasse 34b

60325 Frankfurt

Germany

London +44 (0)20 3077 5700

280 High Holborn

London, WC1V 7EE

United Kingdom

New York +1 646 653 7026

245 Park Avenue, 39th Floor

10167, New York

US

Sydney +61 (0)2 8249 8342

Level 12, Office 1205, 95 Pitt Street

Sydney, NSW 2000

Australia

Edison is an investment research and advisory company, with offices in North America, Europe, the Middle East and AsiaPac. The heart of Edison is our world renowned equity research platform and deep multi-sector expertise. At Edison Investment Research, our research is widely read by international investors, advisors and stakeholders. Edison Advisors leverages our core research platform to provide differentiated services including investor relations and strategic consulting. Edison is authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority. Edison Investment Research (NZ) Limited (Edison NZ) is the New Zealand subsidiary of Edison. Edison NZ is registered on the New Zealand Financial Service Providers Register (FSP number 247505) and is registered to provide wholesale and/or generic financial adviser services only. Edison Investment Research Inc (Edison US) is the US subsidiary of Edison and is regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Edison Investment Research Limited (Edison Aus) [46085869] is the Australian subsidiary of Edison and is not regulated by the Australian Securities and Investment Commission. Edison Germany is a branch entity of Edison Investment Research Limited [4794244]. www.edisongroup.com

DISCLAIMER Copyright 2017 Edison Investment Research Limited. All rights reserved. This report has been commissioned by China Aviation Oil (Singapore) and prepared and issued by Edison for publication globally. All information used in the publication of this report has been compiled from publicly available sources that are believed to be reliable, however we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this report. Opinions contained in this report represent those of the research department of Edison at the time of publication. The securities described in the Investment Research may not be eligible for sale in all jurisdictions or to certain categories of investors. This research is issued in Australia by Edison Aus and any access to it, is intended only for "wholesale clients" within the meaning of the Australian Corporations Act. The Investment Research is distributed in the United States by Edison US to major US institutional investors only. Edison US is registered as an investment adviser with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Edison US relies upon the "publishers' exclusion" from the definition of investment adviser under Section 202(a)(11) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and corresponding state securities laws. As such, Edison does not offer or provide personalised advice. We publish information about companies in which we believe our readers may be interested and this information reflects our sincere opinions. The information that we provide or that is derived from our website is not intended to be, and should not be construed in any manner whatsoever as, personalised advice. Also, our website and the information provided by us should not be construed by any subscriber or prospective subscriber as Edison’s solicitation to effect, or attempt to effect, any transaction in a security. The research in this document is intended for New Zealand resident professional financial advisers or brokers (for use in their roles as financial advisers or brokers) and habitual investors who are “wholesale clients” for the purpose of the Financial Advisers Act 2008 (FAA) (as described in sections 5(c) (1)(a), (b) and (c) of the FAA). This is not a solicitation or inducement to buy, sell, subscribe, or underwrite any securities mentioned or in the topic of this document. This document is provided for information purposes only and should not be construed as an offer or solicitation for investment in any securities mentioned or in the topic of this document. A marketing communication under FCA Rules, this document has not been prepared in accordance with the legal requirements designed to promote the independence of investment research and is not subject to any prohibition on dealing ahead of the dissemination of investment research. Edison has a restrictive policy relating to personal dealing. Edison Group does not conduct any investment business and, accordingly, does not itself hold any positions in the securities mentioned in this report. However, the respective directors, officers, employees and contractors of Edison may have a position in any or related securities mentioned in this report. Edison or its affiliates may perform services or solicit business from any of the companies mentioned in this report. The value of securities mentioned in this report can fall as well as rise and are subject to large and sudden swings. In addition it may be difficult or not possible to buy, sell or obtain accurate information about the value of securities mentioned in this report. Past performance is not necessarily a guide to future performance. Forward-looking information or statements in this report contain information that is based on assumptions, forecasts of future results, estimates of amounts not yet determinable, and therefore involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of their subject matter to be materially different from current expectations. For the purpose of the FAA, the content of this report is of a general nature, is intended as a source of general information only and is not intended to constitute a recommendation or opinion in relation to acquiring or disposing (including refraining from acquiring or disposing) of securities. The distribution of this document is not a “personalised service” and, to the extent that it contains any financial advice, is intended only as a “class service” provided by Edison within the meaning of the FAA (ie without taking into account the particular financial situation or goals of any person). As such, it should not be relied upon in making an investment decision. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Edison, its affiliates and contractors, and their respective directors, officers and employees will not be liable for any loss or damage arising as a result of reliance being placed on any of the information contained in this report and do not guarantee the returns on investments in the products discussed in this publication. FTSE International Limited (“FTSE”) © FTSE 2017. “FTSE®” is a trade mark of the London Stock Exchange Group companies and is used by FTSE International Limited under license. All rights in the FTSE indices and/or FTSE ratings vest in FTSE and/or its licensors. Neither FTSE nor its licensors accept any liability for any errors or omissions in the FTSE indices and/or FTSE ratings or underlying data. No further distribution of FTSE Data is permitted without FTSE’s express written consent.

Frankfurt +49 (0)69 78 8076 960

Schumannstrasse 34b

60325 Frankfurt

Germany

London +44 (0)20 3077 5700

280 High Holborn

London, WC1V 7EE

United Kingdom

New York +1 646 653 7026

245 Park Avenue, 39th Floor

10167, New York

US

Sydney +61 (0)2 8249 8342

Level 12, Office 1205, 95 Pitt Street

Sydney, NSW 2000

Australia

Frankfurt +49 (0)69 78 8076 960

Schumannstrasse 34b

60325 Frankfurt

Germany

London +44 (0)20 3077 5700

280 High Holborn

London, WC1V 7EE

United Kingdom

New York +1 646 653 7026

245 Park Avenue, 39th Floor

10167, New York

US

Sydney +61 (0)2 8249 8342

Level 12, Office 1205, 95 Pitt Street

Sydney, NSW 2000

Australia

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